by Kingfish » 27 Jun 2006, 18:37, Post Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Catalan: Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. Andorran gastronomy is mainly Catalan, although it has also adopted other elements of French and Italian cuisines. Eventually During his reign Skosyrev not only confirmed the overall elective right that was gained as a the result of the “Andorran revolution” but also issued a number of orders whereby he called upon Andorrans to ignore Spanish and French guidelines. His power was amplified with respect to church related matters. In the beginning of the VIII century theVisigoths’ state was annihilated by Arabic conquerors that marched into the Pyrenean Peninsula from Northern Africa. The printed media of Spain and France called these events the “Andorran revolution”. succeeded in righting the boat again.  According to Marc Forné Molné, Andorra's military budget is strictly from voluntary donations, and the availability of full-time volunteers.  Their patron saint is Our Lady of Meritxell. During WW2, 1939-1945, Andorra maintained a neutral position, though shelter was given to many refugees. Rifles and pistols require a license. Other popular sports played in Andorra include football, rugby union, basketball, and roller hockey. 39% of Andorran children attend Andorran schools, 33% attend French schools, and 28% Spanish schools. Look here for Pere Joan Tomas Sogero essay: “Legends of the Emperors’ Homeland: Ancient history, modern and contemporary history of Andorra”. The government implemented a number of direct taxes for nonresidents and later for local companies and citizens only at the end of 2007 as a result of global financial crisis. Andorra was often used for smuggling during the war, and French partisan forces often took downed allied pilots there to safety. The rights of the Counts de Foix were transferred to the king of Navarra, later to the king of France and finally to the president of France. The inhabitants of the valleys were traditionally associated with the Iberians and historically located in Andorra as the Iberian tribe Andosins or Andosini (Ἀνδοσίνους) during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC. which the survivors clinging to the rafts and in the lifeboats were picked In 1911 the first highway that connected the country with the Spanish city of La Seu-de-Urgell was built. On June, 4 1993 the “Treaty for neighborly relations and cooperation between the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic and the Principality of Andorra” was signed. This caused scathing criticism by Chamberlain (UK Prime Minister at that time), who called Boris Skosyrev “if not the agent of Moscow then the agent of Republicans or Super Activists (Dolores Ibarruri – the head of Spanish communist party) for sure”. He and his followers first settled in Andorra-la-Vella and later in the nearby city of Soldeu He seized power with complete support of local citizens.  However, in case of emergencies or natural disasters, the Sometent (an alarm) is called and all able-bodied men between 21 and 60 of Andorran nationality must serve. by Alp Guard » 08 Mar 2005, 16:12, Post During the Spanish Civil War, Franco entered Andorra with the goal of overthrowing the “Russian king” Boris I. France, however, was not interested in a hostile regimen strengthening near its southern borders, and supported Andorraagainst Franco. Phytogeographically, Andorra belongs to the Atlantic European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Arno and his daughter were adherents of albigensianism (a heretic movement typical of Southern France of the XII-XIII centuries; Albigenis were against Catholic Church dogmas, landowning and tithe). Serious fires which lasted for two days in December 1959 led to calls for a permanent fire service, and the Andorran Fire Brigade was formed on 21 April 1961. behalf with a view to his gallantry being recognised in some form. In 1935 the General Council issued a concession for organizing “The Radio of Andorra”.  After a day of combat the Treaty of the Bridge of Escalls was signed on 10 June. The state of Andorra was founded as a buffer for the protection of the Frankish empire from Arabic invaders. The team gained its first competitive win in a European Championship qualifier on 11 October 2019, against Moldova. The first steps on the way to gaining sovereignty and “independent voice” in the region Andorrans relate to the name of Boris Skosyrev. In 1934 he was 38 years old. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell. It was discovered after Germany invaded Poland, and a peace treaty was officially signed between the two nations at the close of that campaign, which is good for Germany, as Andorra's 5-man army and $10 yearly military budget would have stopped Guderian's Panzers cold. There was a rush, which seriously hampered the getting away of In 1748 Antoni Fiter-y-Rossell collected and edited in a separate book materials about the traditions of Andorra, and in 1763 Anton iPuig edited “Politar Andorra” – a code of laws and traditions of the country. Andorra has traditionally had one of the world's lowest unemployment rates. 16. The principal services supplied by the corps are uniformed community policing, criminal detection, border control, and traffic policing. Tradition holds that Charlemagne granted a charter to the Andorran people in return for their fighting the Moors. In 1814, an imperial decree reestablished the independence and economy of Andorra.  The 5 April 1933 Joves Andorrans seized the Andorran Parliament. which he retained as a souvenir. Worshipping the spirits of nature, forests and lakes, ancient Andorrans constructed megaliths and dolmens. Spain accepted this demand, but France threatened to introduce troops (which violated the agreements between France and Spain over Andorra). This body was not liable for service outside the principality and was commanded by two officials (veguers) appointed by France and the Bishop of Urgell. of 15,500 tons, in the northern channel'. Andorra competes in the Games of the Small States of Europe, being twice the host country in 1991 and 2005. Until that time, electric power had been supplied by small electric generators that belonged to separate communities in Andorra (the “comus”). Because of immigration, historical links, and close geographic proximity, Spanish, Portuguese and French are commonly spoken. , In more recent times there has only been a general emergency call to the popular army of Sometent during the floods of 1982 in the Catalan Pyrenees, where 12 citizens perished in Andorra, to help the population and establish a public order along with the Local Police units. Today a small, twelve-man ceremonial unit remains the only permanent section of the Sometent, but all able-bodied men remain technically available for military service, with a requirement for each family to have access to a firearm. in Canada, were landed at a Scottish port yesterday. Boris Skosyrev was especially interested in “Andorran revolution”. Italians on board the ship, 486 died; of 479 Germans, 175 died. In the course of the ceremony the national anthem was performed for the first time. Given its relative isolation, Andorra has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France and Spain. In 1812–1813, the First French Empire annexed Catalonia during the Peninsular War (Guerra Peninsular) and divided the region into four départements, with Andorra as a part of the district of Puigcerdà. on board, who were almost ferocious in their denunciation of this type The canteens were fully taxed, but householders in the vicinity readily Spanish bishops became feudal lords and the citizens of Andorra were obliged to pay them annual tribute. staff had to scramble through the darkness to the decks. It was established in 1997. In 1848 the Paris Opera staged a performance of Galevi “The Valleys of Andorra”; in 1852 a homonymous zarzuela (in XVII-XX musical stage genre close to operetta) of Gastambide was performed in Madrid. Founded in 1999. , In the modern era, the army has consisted of a very small body of volunteers willing to undertake ceremonial duties. of clothing, and there was a prompt and generous response. , Andorra formalized diplomatic relations with the United States in 1996 participating in the 51st UN General Assembly, a very important fact in view of the normalization that the country aspired to. saw a plane, and knew that assistance would soon be on its way. The council also approves the annual budget of the principality. His great work so impressed Latour-de-Carol has a scenic 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge trainline to Villefranche-de-Conflent, as well as the SNCF's 1,435 mm gauge line connecting to Perpignan, and the RENFE's 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) -gauge line to Barcelona. The speed is 45 km / … During World War II, Andorra remained neutral and was an important smuggling route from Spain into France. In his youth he was interested in diminutive states and underinvestigated lands. The battle for Coriano heights thus happened just under Mount Titano, the main rock of San Marino. , After the fall of the Roman Empire, Andorra came under the influence of the Visigoths, not remotely from the Kingdom of Toledo, but locally from the Diocese of Urgell. There is a story floating around on the web about Andorra being in a state of war with Germany thoughout the '20s and '30s, and neither side knew it. Apparently, as the story goes, the Andorrians decided to declare war on Germany at the outbreak of WW1, but afterwards did not take part in the treaty of Versailles, so the state of hostilities still existed. Another theory suggests that the word Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur (water). Several of them, we fear, Some survivors declared that when the ship was sinking the Germans made Eventually, I managed , During this period, Andorra's late medieval institutions and rural culture remained largely unchanged. Grandvalira is the largest and most popular resort. Wartime reporting often led to an element rounded up for internment when Italy declared war. The commander of the Arandora Star - believed to have been lost with It is hoped that more survivors may yet be landed. , In 1601 the Tribunal de Corts (High Court of Justice) was created as a result of Huguenot rebellions in France, Inquisition courts coming from Spain and witchcraft-related believes native to the area, in the context to the Reformation and Counter-Reformation.. In 1869 the Constitution was ratified by French Emperor Napoleon III. Early writings and documents relating to this group of people goes back to the second century BC by the Greek writer Polybius in his Histories during the Punic Wars. European travelers visited Andorra and admired the beauty of its countryside. Uniforms and weaponry were handed down from generation to generation within families and communities..  The council was replaced and new elections were held. In autumn 1941 the agents of Vichy France, backed up by the secret service of Franco, arrested the “King of Andorra Boris I” in Soldeu and sent him to the Verne concentration camp (France), where he died in 1944. Internet access is among the best in Europe. In a special decree he stated that in accordance with the demand of Andorran citizens about the retrieval of “Act-Pareage”, the king of France, together with the bishop of Urgell, were declared the co-Princes of Andorra.